Education

The Psychology of Effective Learning

There are tonnes of online tests available to tell us what type of learner we are. But some psychologists believe that an understanding of the psychology of learning would be better served studying external behaviours than internal thoughts and memories. Whether visual, aural, or mechanical thinkers, there is a school of psychology which holds that there are 3 ways in which our brain can be conditioned to learn.

Some of the conclusions that behavioural psychologists arrived at could be very useful when planning your study methods and schedules. Read on for a breakdown of how these can help you.

What is Learning?

There is a consensus among psychologists that learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour resulting from our experiences. So how is this achieved?

Classical Conditioning

This is the sort of change in behaviour brought on by the famous experiments that Ivan Pavlov conducted on his dogs. By ringing a bell every time the dogs were fed, he was able to cause the dogs to salivate merely by ringing the bell.

Operant Learning

If you want the behaviour to stick, however, you must keep up the stimulus. Operant learning involves continued stimulus which is either positive – rewards – or negative – punishments.

  • Continued reinforcement schedule: This increases the chance of a conditioned behaviour occurring, except for a short time after the stimulus is issued. Psychologist agree this is the best method to use when trying to instil a new behaviour
  • Fixed ratio reinforcement: This method involves issuing a stimulus after a certain number of tasks have been completed and gives a good rate of responding overall
  • Variable ratio reinforcement: This method dishes out stimulus at random, unequal rates. It does produce a high rate of response but it is the same reward system that people get from gambling, so may not best way to instil the new behaviours we’re after.
  • Fixed Interval Reinforcement: Like Fixed ration this method provides regular stimulus. The drawback, however, is that it only provides good responses at the end of the interval just before a stimulus is going to be issued.
  • Variable interval: This method involves providing stimulus at random points in time regardless of output of the subject. Although it does provide response it’s much slower than the other methods.

Observational Learning

Albert Bandura’s ‘social learning theory’ was based on his ‘Bobo Doll’ experiments, in which adults were made to play with Bobo dolls in an increasingly aggressive manner. Those children exposed to the aggressive adult behaviour were more likely to imitate the behaviour.

Now, we’re not suggesting that you take a hammer to your Furbies, but it does show how suggestive we are to the behaviour of others.

The logical conclusion of this is that learning around others will instil the new positive behaviours of your peers more quickly than if you try to learn in isolation. 

What does this mean for your study methods? 

Obviously, you want to learn more quickly and efficiently. That is to elicit permanent behavioural change more quickly. Incorporating this into your study method couldn’t be simpler.

Like Pavlov’s dogs, if you provide yourself a treat – say chocolate, an episode on a Netflix series, or even just a five-minute break – every when you study, you’ll condition a positive behavioural change quicker than without a reward system.  At first these stimulating treats should be continuous; say every time you complete a task on your to-do list. Later, moving on to the fixed ratio reinforcement method – every time you complete, say, 5 tasks on your to do list- will continue to give you the best behavioural response rate.

But remember, stimulus is not kept up your behavioural response will slow down and eventually cease. If you really want to instil new positive learning behaviours for life, continuous learning and reward is required. There’s lots of ways to keep this up during periods of academic inactivity, like Summer programmes, or even just reading widely. But as Bandura notes, you’ll be better served by learning around other that can offer a positive influence.

Understanding the OWLS-II Assessment (Part 2)

Understanding the OWLS-II Assessment (Part 2)

We already know that the second edition of the OWLS (Oral and Written Language Scales) assessment includes a set of four scales that provide a comprehensive assessment of language for students. It is a revision of each original oral and written language scale included in the original OWLS assessment, preserving the strongest aspects of the initial test while incorporating a number of improvements.

OWLS-II Improvements

Let’s dive deeper into some of the specific improvements made. While the OWLS-II serves the same purpose as the original OWLS, it contains some changes, additions, and improvements. It preserves many of the same test items, but the new features enhance the value of the test.

The most critical improvement included in the OWLS-II assessment is the reading comprehension portion of the test. Along with the listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression scales included in the first OWLS assessment, the OWLS-II now contains a reading comprehension scale.

This scale provides the examiner the ability to obtain results that go beyond what most existing reading comprehension tests do. It also measures an individual’s understanding of specific linguistic structures in writing.

Another valuable improvement is the parallel second form, also called Form B, that allows examiners to retest individuals after a short time period. This illustrates and measures progress as a result of specific intervention based on the first test, or Form A.

Along with these significant additions, the OWLS-II also includes some minor revisions to existing test structures. Items were added to measure language in the classroom, giving real-life examples of performance in daily interactions.

Full-color artwork makes the OWLS-II more captivating for young children so they can engage more fully with the assessment. These images reflect modern dress and eliminate outdated cultural references. The OWLS-II also provides alternative correct answers for people who speak different English dialects.

Standardization & Technical Properties

Development of the OWLS-II standardization used a 2,123-person sample of 3- to 21-year-olds representative of the U.S. population in regard to gender, ethnicity, parent education, and geographic region. The test provides age-based and grade-based norms for each of the four scales for use when measuring an individual’s proficiency.

The standardization process included the testing of two validation samples. One sample contains students receiving intervention for speech and language disorders while the other sample comprises students receiving intervention for different types of psychological and behavioral disorders.

These two distinct samples reveal that the OWLS-II scales differentiate widely between individuals who struggle with disorders and those who develop typically. Composite scores that fell between reliable ranges validates the OWLS-II internal consistency. The results prove that the test is stable across forms, within forms, over time, and scored by various clinicians.

Principles of Use

The OWLS-II assessment can be used in a variety of settings like schools, private practices, clinics, hospitals, and intervention programs. The test should be used by professionals with experience in evaluating and interpreting individual assessments with children.

Application of the results of each assessment requires training and experience in child development, speech and language, psychology, or education. It is essential to read and understand the information contained in the OWLS manuals.

Although the OWLS-II provides a complete and integrated picture of oral language skills, it alone should not be used to diagnose or establish treatment for a child. It should be used with other data and information to to benefit the individual being assessed. You can find more about the (OWLS™-II) Oral and Written Language Scales™, Second Edition at WPS online.

 

7 Best ways to prepare for SBI PO Exams 2018

Banking sector has created plenty of job opportunities for the youngsters. And thus, lakhs of job aspirant appear for the examination every year. The examination is solely conducted by State bank of India under Probationer Office cadre. Every individual desires to acquire a secured job in the public sector. In addition, the jobs offered by the banking sector are a good salaried job. In whichever field you might have completed your graduation; you are eligible to enroll for the examination. The prerequisite for the examination is to have 60% of marks throughout your academics. Candidates who have secured less than 60% of marks are not eligible to appear in the examination. That is not all, this percentage only make the job aspirant eligible to the examination. The candidature does not assure any confirmation to the candidate.

Now you must be wondering how to qualify this examination. It is one of the most popular and toughest of the examination all over India. In order to crack the examination, you will have to practice regularly and make sure that you are well aware about all the chapters. With passing days, the level of competition is also increasing. Some useful tips are mentioned below by which you can prepare for the examination easily.

Tips for preparation

  • Make maximum use of time – When it comes to cracking the competitive examination, time management is the key point. You should know how to divide your time judiciously and cover up all the subjects within the given time. You should know well how time to be invested in each product. Solving more number of problems in a given will help to enhance your skill and accuracy.
  • Keep away with confusion – One of the most common mistakes made by the candidates while appearing for SBI PO examination is investing more time in one problem. If you are not confident about any problem, then immediately move over to the next problem. If you are unable to get away with your confusion, then you end up losing time. It recurs to negative marks as well.
  • Knowing the shortcuts – With regular practice sessions, you should not forget to revision the chapters that have also already been completed. It will help you to keep everything in your grip. In addition to this, you should know the shortcut tricks well to be able to solve a number of problems within a short time. At the final entrance examination, solving the problem with the help of shortcuts shall help you.
  • Use more practice papers – The more you practice, the better you are able to improve your accuracy level. It is already known that ‘practice makes a man perfect.’ The online test series are available, and you easily access them through applications.
  • Joining coaching classes – SBI PO is one of the toughest of the examinations, it is recommended to join crash courses to get the proper guidance. It shall also help you to analyze both your weak and strong points and revise accordingly. The crash courses conduct regular mock test sessions along with doubt classes for complete guidance.
  • Listing of topics – this will make your preparation easier, and from the list, you will be able to know about which topics who have completed and which are yet to be covered. You should give additional attention to the topics which you find harder among the rest. (Check out SBI PO syllabus here at OnlineTyari).
  • Keep an eye on cutoffs and previous papers – this will help you to know about the tentative cut off for the upcoming examination. Browsing through the previous year’s papers will help you to grasp a better insight into the pattern of the examination.
Benefits Teachers Can Gain from Utilizing Technology in The Classroom

Benefits Teachers Can Gain from Utilizing Technology in The Classroom

When it comes to the digital age, technology is becoming more widely utilized to increase productivity in many different fields. Education is one of the most popular fields which is really getting to reap the benefits of technology in the classroom. Let’s look at the many benefits that teachers are receiving from using technology in their classroom.

The first major benefit is helping students retain information better. It’s not a big surprise that students tend to learn differently. By incorporating different technologies into your classrooms, such as videos, music, and PowerPoints, students can better learn the lessons you’re teaching them. When your students are learning, you’re doing your job. Technology helps you do it more effectively.

The next benefit that teachers receive from technology is better organization of grading for students. No longer do teachers need to read over a handwritten report. Now, they can simply log onto their online classroom platform and see a typed-up assignment from each student. This allows for easy reading and quicker grading of the assignments. Teachers can simply fill in the grade for each document that is submitted. All the information is easily stored on the platform for the classroom. This makes checking grades during mid-terms easy as pie.

Due to the capabilities of the internet, teachers can better connect with their students during non-class hours. For example, late afternoon study sessions or weekly Q&A sessions can provide the extra help that some students need to excel in the classroom. For more specialized care, teachers can do private tutoring sessions with students at convenient hours. No longer do parents need to schedule traveling time as their children can easily jump into a chat session with their teachers to get the extra educational attention they need.

Trying to remember everything throughout the year can be a difficult challenge. With technology, you can capture those awesome moments for review later. In fact, with digital portfolios, students can save moments throughout the year that they feel were the most important to them. This can allow you, as a teacher, to clearly see what inspires your students the most. As an added benefit, you can see just how much of a difference you made in their life from the beginning of the school year to the end of the school year.

The last benefit that we’re going to talk about is instant feedback. As a teacher, it’s your job to find a way to successfully teach your students about your field of study. Unfortunately, what you think may be the best solution may turn out not to be. With instant feedback from your students with end of the day quizzes or feedback requests, you can see how your students feel about different types of lesson plans. You’ll also be alerted to topics which didn’t come across as clearly as you thought. This can help you to adjust your teaching strategies to better fit the needs of your students.

As a teacher, you should be trying to incorporate technology into your classroom. The use of technology provides many different benefits for teachers, regardless of what age their students are. The above is just some of the most sought-after benefits that teachers have from using technology in their classrooms.

 

When & Why to Prepare for IAS

When & Why to Prepare for IAS

The All India Services (AIS) is comprised of the Indian Forest Service (IFS), the Indian Police Service (IPS), and the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). The Indian Administrative Service is the administrative branch of the All India Services and was founded in 1858, then known as the Imperial Civil Service.

Civil service in the IAS is regarded as one of the most honorable positions to occupy in India and is set above service in the IFS and IPS. Being an IAS officer gives an individual the power to administer districts and represent the Indian government internationally.

This is why the IAS competitive examination is one of the most challenging examinations there is.

The Age Factor

Candidates are expected to be eligible according to certain criteria before they can legitimately apply for the IAS examination. These criteria include those of nationality, educational background, age, and a number of allowed attempts at the examination. The appropriate ages for application are 21 years (minimum) to 32 years (maximum) for the general category.

As per the rules for the IAS examination 2018, in this case, a candidate is required to be the maximum age, 32, on the 1st of August, 2018, but must not have been born earlier than 2nd of August, 1986, or later than 1st of August, 1997. Applicants of Scheduled Castes and Tribes (SC/ST), Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and some others have moderately flexible age limits.

Preparation for IAS Exam: When & Why

It is imperative for any individual who is considering applying for the IAS examination to know what its purpose is and when and how to begin preparing for it. Since this examination is considered the toughest in the country, knowing its purpose and the workload could prove beneficial to an aspiring candidate.

When

There is no ideal age to apply for the IAS examination, but if you are looking for an appropriate age to begin your preparation, ages 21 to 23 are best. This way you can dedicate your full concentration to harnessing the necessary tools and skills to tackle the examination with dexterity and efficiency. But there is no restriction against preparing earlier, while you are still in school or college, provided that you have the time.

The components of the IAS examination test candidates on English proficiency, and general studies that encompass topics ranging from Indian Heritage and Culture, Ethics, and History to Aptitude, Geography, Disaster Management, and International Relations.

There is also a level of knowledge of current events around the world that is expected of applicants. Studying for all of these subjects well is not easy to do, so it is ideal that any ambitious applicant starts their preparation as soon as they can devote the time to it. Create your study plans in advance and get down to serious preparation, since it will ultimately be of benefit to you.

Why

The role of an IAS officer is not only honorable and of high stature, but it is also extremely taxing and packs in a large responsibility. Only the most capable candidates who clear the examination are selected to bear this kind of load.

Some of the responsibilities that IAS officers handle are that they deal with the affairs of the district, give their inputs during policy and decision-making (depending on their position), and implement policies and traveling to areas where they are being implemented. IAS officers have different roles and functions at different levels. They are answerable to the Parliament of India and State Legislatures for any violation of rules while they are on duty.

Now that you are aware of the duties of an IAS officer, you will understand why it is important to prepare well for the IAS examination. The IAS examination begins with a preliminary exam for 400 marks. The following main exam comprises 2075 marks, with two other qualifying papers bearing 300 marks each. The last component of the IAS examination is a personality test, which is done via a personal interview.

We would like to wish all of the candidates currently preparing for the IAS examination 2018 all the very best in their efforts to serve in the All India Services and do our country proud!

How to keep your child entertained during car journeys

The thought of taking kids on car journeys really freaks parents out. Everyone knows that children lose interest very quickly and who knows what kind of tearful drama you will end up dealing with in the car. Every five minutes your kids will repeat these sentences ‘are we there yet?’ or ‘I need to go to the bathroom’ and lots of other tantrums all of a sudden from nowhere.

Children very soon get tired sitting restlessly in the car. This is the exact reason why you need to know some tricks to entertain your kids. Here is how you can do that:

  1. Music: Before leaving for the road trip, remember to fill the CD player with your kid’s favorite songs and favorite nursery rhymes because that will be a great way to entertain them. You don’t have to feel awkward about the nursery rhymes because it will not be the first time a person is singing that in their car with their kids.
  2. Spotting things: We all love to play mind games where there is a lot of ‘eye’ required. So, why not change this a little bit? The age of your child will be a significant factor here because you can make them spot simple to complicated things.
  3. Audio books: If you and your kids love reading, then it will be best for you to have an audio book which they can keep on playing with during the journey. You can also convert your child’s favorite book into audio form on your own.
  4. Sound effects: sound effects during the field trip can really boost up the interest of your child. For example, when you reach a bridge, the clap sound would make a great fit.
  5. In-car entertainment: There are some parents that get tired of listening to their kids whine about everything. If you are one of them, then it will be best for you to have some sort of TV entertainment for a long journey. The end of the journey can become really frustrating hence why it is recommended to save the best for last.
  6. Travel packs: Have you ever thought of getting travel packs for your kids? You can geta cheap ‘stocking filler’ kind of toy with their favorite magazines, and any other drawing material. This will keep them busy. It is best toget small packs for each of your kid.
  7. Snack attack: If you fail the other ways to entertain your kids, then snacks never get old. Food always makes people happy and it will make your kids even happier.

Entertaining your kids surely is a daunting task but it is not impossible. This is going to require careful planning. You are supposed to list everything down that you want to do throughout the journey. Other than these tips, keep extra clothes because we all know that kids spill food and mess around all the time. Potential hassles with kids are always numerous but with these ways, you can ensure a smooth and calm journey.

What Does it Take to Become Successful as a Civil Engineer?

In addition to the education and training needed to become a civil engineer, there are other components required to be successful in this career path. Civil engineers on top of their game have a number of skills that help them understand the areas they work in and how to use their client’s needs to create a solid structure. Some of the more sought-after skills will include:

  • Solid decision-making
  • Be mathematically inclined
  • Good at solving problems
  • Organization
  • Working well with other professionals

Civil engineers need to go through a process of credentialing in order to work in this particular field. However, they may also take their knowledge and marketability a step or two further by completing other certificates. The necessary exams include the following:

  • Fundamentals of Engineering
  • Principles and Practice of Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Water Resources Engineering
  • Navigation Engineering
  • Tools and Technology

Being a successful a civil engineer takes sending time at the drafting table as well as being on site at construction zones. As a result, they use many different types of tools and technologies to help plan and execute their designs. Click here to find out more about the opportunities that exist for those seeking to become a civil engineer.

Trends in Careers in Civil Engineering

There are over 100,000 civil engineers working in this field, which is expected to grow over the next few years. Civil engineering roles are anticipated to jump by about 20% by 2022, which is a lot faster than the national average for just about every other type of job out there. Lots of things have contributed to this growth, such as aging infrastructure, a growing population, and an increase in renewable energy projects.

There are also a number of related careers associated with civil engineering that students may choose to embark on, including:

  • Construction Manager
  • Cost Estimator
  • Civic Engineering Professor
  • Risk Management Specialist
  • Hydrologist
  • Construction and Building Inspectors
  • Architect
  • Civil Engineering Technician
  • Architectural and Civil Drafter

Related Occupation Salaries

People who work in the field of engineering or other related fields typically make a very handsome living. Whether it’s working towards leading projects or helping licensed engineers, the options are seemingly endless. Here are some related fields to civil engineering and the current salary expectations for each:

  • Civil Engineer: $82,050
  • Civil Engineering Technician: $48,340
  • Architect: $74,820
  • Construction Manager: $85,630
  • Mechanical Engineer: $83,060
  • Landscape Architect: $64,570
  • Architectural and Engineering Manager: $130,620
  • Soil and Water Conservationist: $61,860
  • Cost Estimator: $45,974

As you can see, the options for engineering are vast and the salary potential is high. If civil engineering is of interest to you, get started on your educational career today.

Helping Violent Teens Recover Without Prison Time

Behavior that is disruptive or displays a lack of respect for authority, or is verbally or physically abusive is a way that children cry out for help. Troubled teenagers programs offer opportunities to get your at-risk child on a better path of behavior and emotional health.

Outpatient programs allow them to remain in the home. He or she receives therapy (individual, group, or family) to help resolve and cope with emotional issues (anger, anxiety, fear, etc.); or educational support such as tutoring assistance. Diversion programs are available for youth who have found themselves in trouble with the law. Residential programs place him or her in a supervised controlled home-like environment that provides a greater depth of engagement for a more intense experience. But, schools like WoodCreek Academy offer something different.

Christian boarding schools for troubled boys is an option that teaches biblical values to establish and enhance spiritual development; offers all of the amenities of a traditional school and rigorous academics. These facilities are equipped with a full-scope of therapeutic services for treating serious behavioral and emotional issues in a more disciplined atmosphere. Students learn to cope with peer pressure issues and develop personal accountability.

Behavior Modification Schools help students achieve academically, become more disciplined while providing therapeutic services to help identify and change patterns of behavior that result in negative consequences. Teens having difficulties in traditional school settings learn and develop positive coping tactics that carry over into adulthood.

These available options will help to keep your child from becoming a prison statistic versus a productive adult.

Maybe you’re eyeing a promotion at work, or wanting to apply for your dream job. Or maybe you feel like you’re behind your peers in terms of skills. All of these are good reasons to further your education. A bachelor’s degree is a great asset, but today’s employers are looking beyond that. Candidates with advanced degrees such as an MBA are much more attractive than those who only have an undergraduate degree, so if you are looking to get started in your dream job or move up in the one you already have, it really pays to go back to school and get a master’s degree.

Most schools have financial aid available and if you’re already employed, chances are good that your company offers tuition assistance or reimbursement. So what are you waiting for? Oh, you’re wondering how you are going to juggle having to go to campus for classes and go to work? Relax. Today you can get a master’s degree without ever having to step foot on campus or in a classroom. Schools like onlinemba.ku.edu offer online degree programs. You can take all your classes from the comfort of your home and at times that work with your busy schedule. You’ll simply log into a special portal on the school’s website and watch lectures, chat with your instructor and fellow classmates, and turn in assignments. It’s much more convenient than night or weekend classes.  You work on your schedule.

There are some drawbacks to online degree programs though. First, they take a lot of discipline. You will have to be able to set aside time to log in and learn, and turn in your assignments. Online learning can also be a bit challenging for those who thrive in a classroom setting and on the interactions it provides, so keep that in mind.

If you’re ready to register for a program, choose carefully. There are a lot of shady for-profit schools out there that aren’t actually accredited and some that are little more than diploma mills. Check out your chosen program carefully and make sure it is fully accredited and legit. A degree from a non-accredited school isn’t worth the paper it’s printed on. Once you’ve found a great program and are registered, take advantage of all the resources the school has to offer and get to know your classmates. The great thing about online learning is you can do so via online chatting, which for many people is much easier than face to face conversations with strangers!

How shall be the best way in keeping your hair strong and beautiful? As a good point, treatment for hair loss is necessary in keeping everything on your deal. It is necessary to know the factors of hair losses. This point directs you to general understanding on specific factors to contribute in hair thinning. Specific illnesses like cancer may contribute to hair loss. In the same line, as you are in therapy session, certain medication will have the same impact. Under this situation, treatment is crucial. And, this will give you the chance to improve the condition.

The way you treat yourself depends highly on the availability of the service. By the same token, as you have time limitation, it is essential to get treatment at home. When it is your condition, you are directed to select best hair treatment products. In the selection, it is wise to know the type and the characteristic of your hair. This point includes the sensitiveness of your skin to related products. Perhaps, browsing online is reliable choice today.

Treatment for Hair Loss, the Significance

The real point is that hair loss may affect your general performance. You shall be proud as your hair normally grows. On the other hand, stressful yet embarrassing moment may be created as you are bald. Hair thinning may happen every single day as you live. The exact measurement of hair losses is still contradictory. Yet, you can count 100 hair losses as normal situation. On the same token, this should be prevented earlier.

The importance of hair treatment is to minimize the potential to become bald. You can be male or female with healthy hair. Yet, during certain period, you may experience hair losses. Under this condition, treatment for hair loss holds significant factor in contributing to your perfect performance. And, this could meet your personal objective.