Gazsi Mihály

The Psychology of Effective Learning

There are tonnes of online tests available to tell us what type of learner we are. But some psychologists believe that an understanding of the psychology of learning would be better served studying external behaviours than internal thoughts and memories. Whether visual, aural, or mechanical thinkers, there is a school of psychology which holds that there are 3 ways in which our brain can be conditioned to learn.

Some of the conclusions that behavioural psychologists arrived at could be very useful when planning your study methods and schedules. Read on for a breakdown of how these can help you.

What is Learning?

There is a consensus among psychologists that learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour resulting from our experiences. So how is this achieved?

Classical Conditioning

This is the sort of change in behaviour brought on by the famous experiments that Ivan Pavlov conducted on his dogs. By ringing a bell every time the dogs were fed, he was able to cause the dogs to salivate merely by ringing the bell.

Operant Learning

If you want the behaviour to stick, however, you must keep up the stimulus. Operant learning involves continued stimulus which is either positive – rewards – or negative – punishments.

  • Continued reinforcement schedule: This increases the chance of a conditioned behaviour occurring, except for a short time after the stimulus is issued. Psychologist agree this is the best method to use when trying to instil a new behaviour
  • Fixed ratio reinforcement: This method involves issuing a stimulus after a certain number of tasks have been completed and gives a good rate of responding overall
  • Variable ratio reinforcement: This method dishes out stimulus at random, unequal rates. It does produce a high rate of response but it is the same reward system that people get from gambling, so may not best way to instil the new behaviours we’re after.
  • Fixed Interval Reinforcement: Like Fixed ration this method provides regular stimulus. The drawback, however, is that it only provides good responses at the end of the interval just before a stimulus is going to be issued.
  • Variable interval: This method involves providing stimulus at random points in time regardless of output of the subject. Although it does provide response it’s much slower than the other methods.

Observational Learning

Albert Bandura’s ‘social learning theory’ was based on his ‘Bobo Doll’ experiments, in which adults were made to play with Bobo dolls in an increasingly aggressive manner. Those children exposed to the aggressive adult behaviour were more likely to imitate the behaviour.

Now, we’re not suggesting that you take a hammer to your Furbies, but it does show how suggestive we are to the behaviour of others.

The logical conclusion of this is that learning around others will instil the new positive behaviours of your peers more quickly than if you try to learn in isolation. 

What does this mean for your study methods? 

Obviously, you want to learn more quickly and efficiently. That is to elicit permanent behavioural change more quickly. Incorporating this into your study method couldn’t be simpler.

Like Pavlov’s dogs, if you provide yourself a treat – say chocolate, an episode on a Netflix series, or even just a five-minute break – every when you study, you’ll condition a positive behavioural change quicker than without a reward system.  At first these stimulating treats should be continuous; say every time you complete a task on your to-do list. Later, moving on to the fixed ratio reinforcement method – every time you complete, say, 5 tasks on your to do list- will continue to give you the best behavioural response rate.

But remember, stimulus is not kept up your behavioural response will slow down and eventually cease. If you really want to instil new positive learning behaviours for life, continuous learning and reward is required. There’s lots of ways to keep this up during periods of academic inactivity, like Summer programmes, or even just reading widely. But as Bandura notes, you’ll be better served by learning around other that can offer a positive influence.

Understanding the OWLS-II Assessment (Part 2)

Understanding the OWLS-II Assessment (Part 2)

We already know that the second edition of the OWLS (Oral and Written Language Scales) assessment includes a set of four scales that provide a comprehensive assessment of language for students. It is a revision of each original oral and written language scale included in the original OWLS assessment, preserving the strongest aspects of the initial test while incorporating a number of improvements.

OWLS-II Improvements

Let’s dive deeper into some of the specific improvements made. While the OWLS-II serves the same purpose as the original OWLS, it contains some changes, additions, and improvements. It preserves many of the same test items, but the new features enhance the value of the test.

The most critical improvement included in the OWLS-II assessment is the reading comprehension portion of the test. Along with the listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression scales included in the first OWLS assessment, the OWLS-II now contains a reading comprehension scale.

This scale provides the examiner the ability to obtain results that go beyond what most existing reading comprehension tests do. It also measures an individual’s understanding of specific linguistic structures in writing.

Another valuable improvement is the parallel second form, also called Form B, that allows examiners to retest individuals after a short time period. This illustrates and measures progress as a result of specific intervention based on the first test, or Form A.

Along with these significant additions, the OWLS-II also includes some minor revisions to existing test structures. Items were added to measure language in the classroom, giving real-life examples of performance in daily interactions.

Full-color artwork makes the OWLS-II more captivating for young children so they can engage more fully with the assessment. These images reflect modern dress and eliminate outdated cultural references. The OWLS-II also provides alternative correct answers for people who speak different English dialects.

Standardization & Technical Properties

Development of the OWLS-II standardization used a 2,123-person sample of 3- to 21-year-olds representative of the U.S. population in regard to gender, ethnicity, parent education, and geographic region. The test provides age-based and grade-based norms for each of the four scales for use when measuring an individual’s proficiency.

The standardization process included the testing of two validation samples. One sample contains students receiving intervention for speech and language disorders while the other sample comprises students receiving intervention for different types of psychological and behavioral disorders.

These two distinct samples reveal that the OWLS-II scales differentiate widely between individuals who struggle with disorders and those who develop typically. Composite scores that fell between reliable ranges validates the OWLS-II internal consistency. The results prove that the test is stable across forms, within forms, over time, and scored by various clinicians.

Principles of Use

The OWLS-II assessment can be used in a variety of settings like schools, private practices, clinics, hospitals, and intervention programs. The test should be used by professionals with experience in evaluating and interpreting individual assessments with children.

Application of the results of each assessment requires training and experience in child development, speech and language, psychology, or education. It is essential to read and understand the information contained in the OWLS manuals.

Although the OWLS-II provides a complete and integrated picture of oral language skills, it alone should not be used to diagnose or establish treatment for a child. It should be used with other data and information to to benefit the individual being assessed. You can find more about the (OWLS™-II) Oral and Written Language Scales™, Second Edition at WPS online.

 

7 Best ways to prepare for SBI PO Exams 2018

Banking sector has created plenty of job opportunities for the youngsters. And thus, lakhs of job aspirant appear for the examination every year. The examination is solely conducted by State bank of India under Probationer Office cadre. Every individual desires to acquire a secured job in the public sector. In addition, the jobs offered by the banking sector are a good salaried job. In whichever field you might have completed your graduation; you are eligible to enroll for the examination. The prerequisite for the examination is to have 60% of marks throughout your academics. Candidates who have secured less than 60% of marks are not eligible to appear in the examination. That is not all, this percentage only make the job aspirant eligible to the examination. The candidature does not assure any confirmation to the candidate.

Now you must be wondering how to qualify this examination. It is one of the most popular and toughest of the examination all over India. In order to crack the examination, you will have to practice regularly and make sure that you are well aware about all the chapters. With passing days, the level of competition is also increasing. Some useful tips are mentioned below by which you can prepare for the examination easily.

Tips for preparation

  • Make maximum use of time – When it comes to cracking the competitive examination, time management is the key point. You should know how to divide your time judiciously and cover up all the subjects within the given time. You should know well how time to be invested in each product. Solving more number of problems in a given will help to enhance your skill and accuracy.
  • Keep away with confusion – One of the most common mistakes made by the candidates while appearing for SBI PO examination is investing more time in one problem. If you are not confident about any problem, then immediately move over to the next problem. If you are unable to get away with your confusion, then you end up losing time. It recurs to negative marks as well.
  • Knowing the shortcuts – With regular practice sessions, you should not forget to revision the chapters that have also already been completed. It will help you to keep everything in your grip. In addition to this, you should know the shortcut tricks well to be able to solve a number of problems within a short time. At the final entrance examination, solving the problem with the help of shortcuts shall help you.
  • Use more practice papers – The more you practice, the better you are able to improve your accuracy level. It is already known that ‘practice makes a man perfect.’ The online test series are available, and you easily access them through applications.
  • Joining coaching classes – SBI PO is one of the toughest of the examinations, it is recommended to join crash courses to get the proper guidance. It shall also help you to analyze both your weak and strong points and revise accordingly. The crash courses conduct regular mock test sessions along with doubt classes for complete guidance.
  • Listing of topics – this will make your preparation easier, and from the list, you will be able to know about which topics who have completed and which are yet to be covered. You should give additional attention to the topics which you find harder among the rest. (Check out SBI PO syllabus here at OnlineTyari).
  • Keep an eye on cutoffs and previous papers – this will help you to know about the tentative cut off for the upcoming examination. Browsing through the previous year’s papers will help you to grasp a better insight into the pattern of the examination.
Benefits Teachers Can Gain from Utilizing Technology in The Classroom

Benefits Teachers Can Gain from Utilizing Technology in The Classroom

When it comes to the digital age, technology is becoming more widely utilized to increase productivity in many different fields. Education is one of the most popular fields which is really getting to reap the benefits of technology in the classroom. Let’s look at the many benefits that teachers are receiving from using technology in their classroom.

The first major benefit is helping students retain information better. It’s not a big surprise that students tend to learn differently. By incorporating different technologies into your classrooms, such as videos, music, and PowerPoints, students can better learn the lessons you’re teaching them. When your students are learning, you’re doing your job. Technology helps you do it more effectively.

The next benefit that teachers receive from technology is better organization of grading for students. No longer do teachers need to read over a handwritten report. Now, they can simply log onto their online classroom platform and see a typed-up assignment from each student. This allows for easy reading and quicker grading of the assignments. Teachers can simply fill in the grade for each document that is submitted. All the information is easily stored on the platform for the classroom. This makes checking grades during mid-terms easy as pie.

Due to the capabilities of the internet, teachers can better connect with their students during non-class hours. For example, late afternoon study sessions or weekly Q&A sessions can provide the extra help that some students need to excel in the classroom. For more specialized care, teachers can do private tutoring sessions with students at convenient hours. No longer do parents need to schedule traveling time as their children can easily jump into a chat session with their teachers to get the extra educational attention they need.

Trying to remember everything throughout the year can be a difficult challenge. With technology, you can capture those awesome moments for review later. In fact, with digital portfolios, students can save moments throughout the year that they feel were the most important to them. This can allow you, as a teacher, to clearly see what inspires your students the most. As an added benefit, you can see just how much of a difference you made in their life from the beginning of the school year to the end of the school year.

The last benefit that we’re going to talk about is instant feedback. As a teacher, it’s your job to find a way to successfully teach your students about your field of study. Unfortunately, what you think may be the best solution may turn out not to be. With instant feedback from your students with end of the day quizzes or feedback requests, you can see how your students feel about different types of lesson plans. You’ll also be alerted to topics which didn’t come across as clearly as you thought. This can help you to adjust your teaching strategies to better fit the needs of your students.

As a teacher, you should be trying to incorporate technology into your classroom. The use of technology provides many different benefits for teachers, regardless of what age their students are. The above is just some of the most sought-after benefits that teachers have from using technology in their classrooms.

 

When & Why to Prepare for IAS

When & Why to Prepare for IAS

The All India Services (AIS) is comprised of the Indian Forest Service (IFS), the Indian Police Service (IPS), and the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). The Indian Administrative Service is the administrative branch of the All India Services and was founded in 1858, then known as the Imperial Civil Service.

Civil service in the IAS is regarded as one of the most honorable positions to occupy in India and is set above service in the IFS and IPS. Being an IAS officer gives an individual the power to administer districts and represent the Indian government internationally.

This is why the IAS competitive examination is one of the most challenging examinations there is.

The Age Factor

Candidates are expected to be eligible according to certain criteria before they can legitimately apply for the IAS examination. These criteria include those of nationality, educational background, age, and a number of allowed attempts at the examination. The appropriate ages for application are 21 years (minimum) to 32 years (maximum) for the general category.

As per the rules for the IAS examination 2018, in this case, a candidate is required to be the maximum age, 32, on the 1st of August, 2018, but must not have been born earlier than 2nd of August, 1986, or later than 1st of August, 1997. Applicants of Scheduled Castes and Tribes (SC/ST), Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and some others have moderately flexible age limits.

Preparation for IAS Exam: When & Why

It is imperative for any individual who is considering applying for the IAS examination to know what its purpose is and when and how to begin preparing for it. Since this examination is considered the toughest in the country, knowing its purpose and the workload could prove beneficial to an aspiring candidate.

When

There is no ideal age to apply for the IAS examination, but if you are looking for an appropriate age to begin your preparation, ages 21 to 23 are best. This way you can dedicate your full concentration to harnessing the necessary tools and skills to tackle the examination with dexterity and efficiency. But there is no restriction against preparing earlier, while you are still in school or college, provided that you have the time.

The components of the IAS examination test candidates on English proficiency, and general studies that encompass topics ranging from Indian Heritage and Culture, Ethics, and History to Aptitude, Geography, Disaster Management, and International Relations.

There is also a level of knowledge of current events around the world that is expected of applicants. Studying for all of these subjects well is not easy to do, so it is ideal that any ambitious applicant starts their preparation as soon as they can devote the time to it. Create your study plans in advance and get down to serious preparation, since it will ultimately be of benefit to you.

Why

The role of an IAS officer is not only honorable and of high stature, but it is also extremely taxing and packs in a large responsibility. Only the most capable candidates who clear the examination are selected to bear this kind of load.

Some of the responsibilities that IAS officers handle are that they deal with the affairs of the district, give their inputs during policy and decision-making (depending on their position), and implement policies and traveling to areas where they are being implemented. IAS officers have different roles and functions at different levels. They are answerable to the Parliament of India and State Legislatures for any violation of rules while they are on duty.

Now that you are aware of the duties of an IAS officer, you will understand why it is important to prepare well for the IAS examination. The IAS examination begins with a preliminary exam for 400 marks. The following main exam comprises 2075 marks, with two other qualifying papers bearing 300 marks each. The last component of the IAS examination is a personality test, which is done via a personal interview.

We would like to wish all of the candidates currently preparing for the IAS examination 2018 all the very best in their efforts to serve in the All India Services and do our country proud!

Important Facts On How MHT CET Will Help You Give A Kick Start To Your Career

Important Facts On How MHT CET Will Help You Give A Kick Start To Your Career

MHT CET is a renowned entrance test that tests your knowledge and reasoning skills before assigning a college or university in Maharashtra. If you are willing to dedicate yourself, there are endless possibilities for you. The registration for MHT CET 2018 has begun and the last date for application submission is 25th March 2018. The exam will be held on 10th May 2018. Thus, you have ample of time to complete the syllabus, and to equip yourself with the best knowledge required to crack the entrance exam.

MHT CET admit card 2018 will be available for download from 24th April 2018 onwards. Complete your registration by filling all the valid details, and start with the preparation without any delay. Here, we discuss the importance of MHT CET for your future. Most aspirants apply for the entrance exams in order to gain entry in a reputed college to kick-start their professional career. How can MHT CET be a life changer for you? We discuss the possibilities in detail.

Undergraduate Courses for Employment & Higher Studies

Important Facts On How MHT CET Will Help You Give A Kick Start To Your Career

Due to stiff competition in the market, and ever-rising competency in the professional world, you need to gain the necessary knowledge to start your professional career. MHT CET paves the way for availing admission in reputed institutions offering courses in diverse fields. Some of these are:

  • Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Architecture
  • Computer Applications

You can procure a graduate degree, and secure a job in the particular industry. This will be the beginning of your professional career. As there are numerous colleges under MHT CET that offer specialized courses, your future is secure.

Further, if you want to pursue postgraduate courses after graduation, the colleges under MHT CET will provide you immense knowledge and experience to pursue your dreams. You can apply for a postgraduate course in prestigious institutions around the globe.

Hindu Business Line estimates 58,000 jobs in pharmaceutical sector

According to a report published in Hindu Business Line, there will be 58,000 jobs in the pharmaceutical sector by 2025. The exponential growth experienced by the Indian pharmaceutical industry will require skilled professionals. As MHT CET is the gateway for pharmaceutical courses in institutions of Maharashtra, this is a golden opportunity for you. If you want to establish yourself in the pharmaceutical industry, start preparing for MHT CET 2018.

Prestigious Colleges in MHT CET

To elevate your excitement, we would like to mention some of the reputed colleges that consider MHT CET score for admissions:

  • College of Engineering, Pune
  • Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai
  • GH Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur
  • Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad
  • Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune
  • Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli

These were some of the colleges, located at multiple locations in Maharashtra, capable of giving wings to your dreams. But you can only gain admission in these colleges if you obtain an impressive score that, in turn, will help you in attaining a top rank in the entrance examination.

Exam Difficulty at par with JEE

According to DTE, the difficulty level of MHT CET 2018 will be made at par with JEE. In addition to difficulty level, the pattern of the examination will also resemble JEE pattern. Until now, MHT CET used to compile questions from Class XII syllabus. But from now, syllabus of Class XI and XII will be considered while preparing the question paper of MHT CET. As these factors are considered, the entrance is bound to get difficult to crack. The move has been planned to admit the studious candidates in the colleges of Maharashtra.